Photons: A high School Primer video postulates that the simplest entities in the Universe - photons-  are mass particles that are made up of two opposite charged mono-charges, of equal strength. It uses the following scientific facts of light and general physics in this page and the assumptions required for Mono-Charges in the  Mono-Charge Basics page.


Background of Understanding Light:

Since Faraday we have known about the oscillating and co-incident electric (alternating + and - charges) and magnetic (alternating poles) fields (EMF) produced by beams of light. Those field are projected at right angles to each other and to the direction of travel.  That oscillating behavior has frequency in time and in distance (with a fixed velocity). In 1865 James Clerk Maxwell developed a wonderful set of equations to model that behavior, but he did not propose a real or physical cause of that measured behavior.


In 1905 Albert Einstein proposed that light had discrete quanta as the basis in his photo-electric paper. He received a Nobel Prize in 1921 for that work. Neil Bohr vehemently denied that theory and continued to advance that light was a wave.  That scientific discussion on the real nature of light was never settled.

Current Scientific Theory of Light

Since the 1970s the evolved theory of light, ie. a simple photon of light or any radiation, is still very muddled. Current theory of light is:

o A Photon is both a wave and a particle, but not exactly either at any one time.

o A photon is a boson that has no mass, but it has measureable momentum!??   Its 'traveling mass' can thus be calculated at 3*10-27 eV/c2 (upper boundary limit).

o Photons travel at the speed of light, c, 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum, but slower in any other media.

o Photons exhibit that very interesting Electro-Magnetic field behavior described earlier.

Other General Physics Concepts Utilized in ATU with Mono-Charges

o A mass with a charge that is orbiting around a moving axis has the same general behavior (ie. sine wave with a given frequency) as one field of the EMF of light. 

A perpendicular vectored force is generated on a charged particle in a magnetic field.

o All mass that is traveling at velocities near the speed of light are highly impacted (exchange mass for acceleration) by relativistic effects, per v2/c2. But setting c as the universal speed limit is a recent occurance and not proposed by Einstein.

o All mass particles have inertia in strength that is in proportion to its mass.

o The possibility of finding particles smaller than quarks has not been eliminated.

o Faster than light particles have not been ruled out- only assumed.

o Relativistic inflection point now set at c, but not proven empirically.