> Made up of two rotating opopposite charge type mon-charges of equal strength that are relativistically impacted as the full particle linearly moves at c AND as the mono-chrges rotate in a polarization plane at frequency, f. Often more than one weaker charge will replace the one charge, of either type, with nearly the same properties and behaviors.

> The linear velocity and rotation frequency of the photon’s mono-charges (MCs) comes from the overwhelming external forces that initially emitted the MCs. With its linear velocity limited by relativistic effects to c, all remaining inputted energy is put into increasing the rotation velocity of the MCs and thus frequency of the photon.

>  The attraction force generated between the two relativistically impacted (linear and rotational) rotating photonic MCs must be sufficient to counteract centrifugal forces that would otherwise destroy the photons.

>  The MCss experience alternating relativistic effects during their individual rotation based on a relativistic fulcrum point that is faster than the photon’s average speed, c.  Those relativistic changes impact (increase/ diminish) the charge strength, induced magnetic pole strength and mass of the mono-charges as they rotate.

>  The forward moving mono-charge must travel faster than the average photon speed, c, as its forward velocity is dependent on its rotating frequency. MCs gain mass and exhibit increased charge and magnetic pole in the forward travel (relative to the photon vector) before turning the corner into the reverse direction.

>  The reverse moving mono-charge travels slower than the average photon speed, c, also dependent on the rotating frequency. The reverse moving MC sheds mass, charge and magnetic pole strength as it loses forward velocity ultimately going much slower than the average photon speed, then it turns the corner into the forward direction for another cycle.

>  Each mono-charge type alternates their rotation position opposite the other charge/ pole type. Therefore only one mono-charge type and pole is dominate at any one time while in the forward traveling direction.

>  The relativistic effects in the forward direction concentrate the mass, electric charge and magnetic pole forces into narrow 2 dimensional planes that are perpendicular to the photon’s linear direction of travel, per relativity.

> Lateral velocities also have relativisitic effects that further modify the force projection. Multiple photons in a beam also impact each other. 



Therefore, the photons’ oscillating co-incident electric (charge) and secondary induced magnetic (pole) fields’ behavior are caused by two opposite charged mono-charges of equal strength that form a mass particle. The mono-charges are rotating around each other on an axis that is perpendicular to the photon’s linear velocity vector and in a plane that includes the photon’s linear velocity vector. Alternating relativistic effects occur on the individual mono-charges as they rotate.


Areas of Research Needed:

The photon mono-charges’ rotation variable speeds, positions and paths, forces, mass lateral wobble, linear axis velocity variations, straightness of the lateral wobble all needs to be simulated. 

The symmetry of the photon electric and magnetic fields needs to be carefully experimentally studied as it is doubtful that full symmetry is possible with such highly relativistic impacted rotation path of the mono-charges.


Several sources describe the evidence supporting the existence of mono-charges in our Universe. In “MC Physics- Model of a Real Photon with Structure and Mass", its abstract, Quora blogs, and the YouTube video "The Photon: High School Primer" all provide evidence and demonstrating that the simplest elemental particles in the Universe - photons- are made of mono-charges (of various charge strength with either charge type). MC Physics theory uses known light and general physics' scientific relationships and processes and the postulated Mono-Charge requirements for this physical model of real photons, not mathematical versions, to explain light's and all radiation's behavior and properties. It is the ONLY physical model of photons.  From that  analysis we can now understand that real photons are: